China, Russia, and the USA: Trade and Value Chain Research
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In response to (geopolitical) uncertainties in the global economy, such as tensions between China and the United States, this paper describes how and to what extent the Netherlands, and particularly the Dutch business community, depends on the products and services traded with China, Russia, and the United States. Geopolitical tensions have been a major topic on the world stage in recent years, for example the ongoing trade dispute between China and the United States that has been raging since 2018. In this report, we detail a previous study of Dutch companies ’dependence on imports and exports with China, Russia and the United States. , With a focus on international trade in services and foreign direct investment. This information then provides a picture of how dependent the Netherlands, and particularly the Dutch business community, is – directly or indirectly – on a wide range of products and services traded with China, Russia, and the United States. This survey is part of the Dutch globalization statistical research program. This research program is funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Many of the studies in this program are thorough and long-term in nature. Most of them consist of several stages for which interim notes are submitted. Due to their technical nature, the final notes will be published in an in-depth context in the globalization file.