American researchers: "A country's success no longer links the growth of the economy" - the world

American researchers: “A country’s success no longer links the growth of the economy” – the world

“It is time to move away from our focus on economic growth as a key indicator of a society’s success,” US researchers say. After all, according to them, there is a good chance that we will be heading for a prolonged decline in growth this century – and countries will have to prepare well for this.

The advanced liberal democracies have entered an unprecedented era of economic growth, which may be drawing to a close this century. Macroeconomic forecasts indicate slower growth, Writing by researchers From the University of Colorado Boulder in the magazine The nature of human behavior.

democracy and prosperity

At the beginning of the 19th century, less than 1% of the world’s population lived in a democracy, compared to about 55% today. Global prosperity has also increased exponentially since the Industrial Revolutions. There appears to be a causal relationship: on average, open democratic institutions promote growth, and in the long run, growth and prosperity promotes the formation of democratic institutions.

Modern liberal democracies—which enjoy a great deal of economic and political freedom and stability—have led the way, but may now face a future of prolonged slowdown in economic growth.

Causes include an aging population, a shift from goods to services, slowing innovation and government debt. Moreover, the long-term effects of Covid-19 and climate change could further slow growth.

Some sustainability scholars view slow growth and stagnation or even de-growth as an environmental necessity, especially in developed countries. But the researchers wrote that the slowdown in growth will affect more than just the economy and the environment, and countries will need to prepare for that.

Gross Domestic Production

Historically, economic growth has been an important measure of the success of advanced democracies such as the United States. So it was central to national identity, said lead author Matt Burgess, associate professor of environmental studies and economics at the University of Colorado Boulder.

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Economic growth is measured by GDP, which the United States also uses to prepare its federal budget. But in the US, federal debt is now expected to exceed GDP in the coming decades as growth slows, which means that other ways to offset the budget deficit need to be considered.

“To prepare for a slow-growing future, we need to move away from the idea that a growing economy is central to national identity,” Burgess says.

Civil Renaissance

Burgess and his co-authors argue that slowing growth poses challenges to social cohesion, inequality of opportunity, personal financial resources (retirement, savings), mental health, and public confidence in government. “Whether slow growth is inevitable or planned, we argue that advanced democracies need to prepare for more financial and social tensions, some of which are already clear.”

To meet these challenges, the authors call for a combination of measures, which they call “assisted civic recovery”: aimed at decoupling social capital and well-being from economic growth.

The article points out several possible actions: strengthening democratic institutions and increasing social inclusion; reducing economic inequality and increasing social solidarity; Increasing investment returns on public spending by closing tax loopholes, reducing corruption and raising taxes; and finally improving the non-economic aspects of people’s well-being.

housing vouchers

One example that Burgess gives to improve social solidarity and reduce inequality is to integrate societies further, rather than dividing them on the basis of income level. “Instead of building subsidized housing in a concentrated area, the government could give families vouchers so they can live where they want,” Burgess says. Hence families can become more integrated into society. In trials, such a program has also been successful in reducing intergenerational poverty.

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The authors also say that slow growth should not necessarily be avoided. Economists have previously noted that two of the main drivers of slower growth — population aging and shifts from goods to services — reflect improvements in well-being.

The advanced liberal democracies have entered an unprecedented era of economic growth, which may be drawing to a close this century. Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder write in the journal Nature Human Behavior that the macroeconomic outlook indicates slower growth. At the beginning of the 19th century, less than 1% of the world’s population lived in a democracy, compared to about 55% today. Global prosperity has also increased exponentially since the Industrial Revolutions. There appears to be a causal relationship: on average, open democratic institutions promote growth, and in the long run, growth and prosperity promotes the formation of democratic institutions. Modern liberal democracies—which enjoy a great deal of economic and political freedom and stability—have led the way, but may now face a future of prolonged slowdown in economic growth. Causes include an aging population, a shift from goods to services, slowing innovation and government debt. Moreover, the long-term effects of Covid-19 and climate change could further slow growth. Some sustainability scholars view slow growth and stagnation or even de-growth as an environmental necessity, especially in developed countries. But the researchers wrote that the slowdown in growth will affect more than just the economy and the environment, and countries will need to prepare for that. Historically, economic growth has been an important measure of the success of advanced democracies such as the United States. Therefore, it has been central to national identity, says lead author Matt Burgess, associate professor of environmental studies and economics at the University of Colorado Boulder. But in the United States, federal debt is now expected to exceed GDP in the coming decades as growth slows, which means other ways to offset the budget deficit must be considered. To grow, we need to move away from the idea that a growing economy is central to national identity,” says Burgess. Burgess and co-authors argue that slowing growth poses challenges to social solidarity, inequality of opportunity, personal financial resources (retirement, savings), mental health, and public confidence in government. Whether slow growth is inevitable or planned, we argue that advanced democracies need to prepare for more financial and social tensions, some of which are already clear. , which they call “subsidized civic recovery”: aims to separate social capital and welfare from economic growth. The article points out several possible actions: strengthening democratic institutions and increasing social inclusion; reducing economic inequality and increasing social solidarity; Increasing investment returns on public spending by closing tax loopholes, reducing corruption and raising taxes; And finally, improving the non-economic aspects of people’s well-being. An example set by Burgess to improve social solidarity and reduce inequality is to integrate societies more, rather than dividing them on the basis of income level. “Instead of building subsidized housing in a concentrated area, the government could give families vouchers so they can live where they want,” Burgess says. Hence families can become more integrated into society. In trials, such a program has also been successful in reducing intergenerational poverty. “The authors also say that slow growth should not necessarily be avoided. Economists have previously noted that two of the main drivers of slower growth — population ageing and shifts from goods to services — reflect improvements in well-being.

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